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Sutton on Hull. Swimming with the Devil Fish Team Hull : Making the difference : the corporate self-assessment, September Tenant involvement in Housing Action Trusts The Bridlington Musical Festival : The Force : the Wilberforce edition. The Garden village centenary commemorative book : July 1st - The Great War - reflections of one teenager's year at the front : based on letters sent home from France by Edward Stanley Williams The Holtby Trail.
The Hudson Taylor trail : a guide to the locations where he lived, worked, worshipped and witnessed in Hull. Tides and shifting sands added to this, allowing a sandbank to form above the waterline. Once surfaced, the island grew, creating an additional hazard to shipping in an already treacherous area. Perhaps unsurprisingly a ship did run aground, and became so firmly stuck that it was abandoned. The stricken vessel eventually became home to an enterprising entrepreneur who clearly saw a business opportunity, and from here he supplied provisions to the crews of passing vessels.
The imaginative trader was not the only person to see the profit potential in the new island and this bizarre sequence of events eventually led to the creation of a thriving community.
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William de Fortibus — Lord of Holderness — also realised the possibilities and sent a bailiff and some villeins to establish a hamlet in his name. The town grew over time and, in order to satisfy demands for their burgeoning community, Ravensers began to divert trading vessels bound for Grimsby into their own harbour.
This forestalling of ships created an outrage downriver, one that simmered in the minds of the aggrieved townsfolk until, incensed at the impact on their own livelihoods, they appealed to the king. The complaint, issued in during the early reign of Edward the First, claimed that Ravensers were using a mixture of persuasion and force to rob Grimsby of trade. It is clear that, rather than curtail their unethical enterprises, the Ravensers continued unchecked.
Far from redressing the issue, however, the case was dismissed, leaving the town at risk of incurring penalties for making a false claim.
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Five years later the island returned two burgesses to represent its interests in parliament. In the dangerous and tumultuous waters swept away a funeral cortege as a body was being conveyed to Hessle for burial. This was not an isolated incident, for between and , thirty-three acres of grassland at Orwythfleet were lost to the elements.
It was becoming clear that, having provided the power that yielded the island from the waters of the North Sea only a century earlier, nature now appeared set to reclaim that which she had conceived. The monks also established a church on the island. Material that is eroded from the Dunwich cliff line is moved down the coast by the process of longshore drift, keeping the beach fairly narrow.
The material is transported in a N-S movement where it is deposited further south to form Orfed Ness Spit. Although prone to severe coastal erosion, Dunwich has relatively little sea defence. An area of marshland just beyond the car park has been protected from the sea by a long shingle sea wall, but this has to be regularly rebuilt by bulldozers. Until recently there has been no other coastal management and the natural creation of a new beach to absorb wave energy has been seen as the most effective solution, due to the small size of Dunwich it has not be seen as cost effective to spend millions on sea defence at this location.
However in February , a new experimental beach stabilisation project began , it has been designed to try and reduce the severe cliff failures.
Applied Coastal Geomorphology
A series of sand and shingle humps are to be created to stop the beach eroding and therefore help to reduce cliff erosion. Labels: Coastal Erosion , Dunwich. Material that is transported by the waves along a coastline is eventually deposited forming distinctive deposition features. There are four main deposition features that you need to learn the formation of. These are: 1. Beaches 2.
Spits 3. Bars 4. Tombolos Beaches Beaches are the main feature of deposition found at the coast, these consist of all the material sand, shingle etc. There are number of different sources of beach material - the main source being rivers, where fine muds and gravels are deposited at the river mouth. Other sources of beach material include longshore drift bringing material from elsewhere along the coast ; constructive waves bringing material up the beach from the sea and from cliff erosion.
As constructive waves build up beaches, they often form ridges in the beach known as berms. The berm highest up the beach represents the extent to which the water has reached during high tide. Click on the diagram below to see the main sources of beach material SPITS Spits are long narrow ridges of sand and shingle which project from the coastline into the sea. The formation of a spit begins due to a change in the direction of a coastline - the main source of material building up a spit is from longshore drift which brings material from further down the coast.
Where there is a break in the coastline and a slight drop in energy, longshore drift will deposit material at a faster rate than it can be removed and gradually a ridge is built up, projecting outwards into the sea - this continues to grow by the process of longshore drift and the deposition of material.
A change in prevailing wind direction often causes the end of spits to become hooked also known as a recurved lateral. On the spit itself, sand dunes often form and vegetation colonises for example Blakeney Point - North Norfolk Water is trapped behind the spit, creating a low energy zone, as the water begins to stagnate, mud and marshland begins to develop behind the spit; Spits may continue to grow until deposition can no longer occur, for example due to increased depth, or the spit begins to cross the mouth of a river and the water removes the material faster than it can deposited - preventing further build up.
Examples of Spits - Spurn Head - Holderness Coast - Orford Ness - Suffolk Click below for an annotated diagram of spit formation: BARS These form in the same way as a spit initially but bars are created where a spit grows across a bay, joining two headlands. Behind the bar, a lagoon is created, where water has been trapped and the lagoon may gradually be infilled as a salt marsh develops due to it being a low energy zone, which encourages deposition.
Example of a Bar: Slapton Sands - Devon. You should also try and learn a labelled diagram to show the formation of each feature. Have a go at the dustbin game below - click on play to begin. Start by studying the two lists when you think you are ready to test yourself on whether a landform is a feature of erosion or deposition start the game by clicking proceed. Drag the feature to the correct dustbin to make your choice! Posted by Mr Chambers at AM 1 comments.
Labels: Bars , Beaches , longshore drift , Spits , Tombolos. Coastal Erosion Features There are 3 main groups of coastal features which result from coastal erosion: 1. Headlands and Bays 2. Caves, Arches, Stacks and Sumps 3.
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Cliffs and Wave-cut platforms Before you revise the formation of these landforms, have a look at this video and make sure you are able to identify the landforms from their distinctive features. Click To Play 1. So how do headlands form? The Dorset coast has excellent examples of Headlands and Bays e. Swanage Bay and the Foreland a headland 2. For the sequence of formation see the animation below: Click To Play So how does a headland erode and caves, arches, stacks and stumps form? Named Examples: The Foreland Dorset Coastline is a great example of a headland which shows these features - there is a distinctive stack called Old Harry and a stump known as Old Harry's Wife.
A good example of a distinctive arch, also found on the Dorset Coast is Durdle Door. So how do cliffs and wave-cut platforms form? Finally to access the highest marks remember to name and locate examples of each feature.
Remember, there are 3 main processes that cause a coastline to change: 1. Erosion 2. Transport 3. There are number of factors which affect each of these processes - we are going to start by exploring erosion processes and the factors that can affect the amount of erosion that may take place along a coastline.
ABRASION this is also known as corrasion - this is where rock fragments are hurled at cliffs by breaking waves, gradually scraping away at the cliff face; 2. This compressed air gradually forces open the crack in the rock - as this process continues, the rock becomes increasingly weakened.